SBC101 case

“Study: First Aid Knowledge in the Population highlighting CPR

Highlighting the importance of CPR in Mexico and other parts of the world, emphasizing the need to change people’s perception that only medical personnel should know the proper techniques:


According to the American Heart Association (AHA), more than 350,000 cardiac arrests occur outside of a hospital setting each year in the United States alone, and a majority of these cases occur in homes. Therefore, it is crucial for the general population to have basic knowledge of first aid techniques, including CPR, to increase the chances of survival in such emergencies. In Mexico and other parts of the world, lack of knowledge regarding first aid and CPR can be a significant issue, with potentially fatal consequences.

In Mexico, the importance of the population having knowledge of CPR has become increasingly relevant due to the lack of response from emergency services in some areas of the country and the culture of transportation that does not always respect ambulances (Mexican Red Cross, 2021). According to the Mexican Red Cross, on average, emergency services take between 8 and 15 minutes to arrive at an emergency, a time that can be crucial in saving the life of a person suffering from a cardiac arrest.

That is why the promotion of CPR training in the population in general, especially in families, has been promoted. The Mexican Red Cross, for example, offers CPR and other first aid training courses and workshops through its “Saving Lives” program (Mexican Red Cross, 2021). In addition, organizations and companies have begun to promote CPR training among their employees and families as a preventive and safety measure.

It is important to highlight that knowledge of CPR not only allows the population to act in emergency situations while medical services arrive, but can also have an impact on the culture of safety in general. By being more aware of the importance of immediate attention in case of a medical emergency, people can begin to take preventive and safety measures in their daily lives (Mexican Red Cross, 2021).

In recent years, there has been a growing recognition of the importance of basic life support (BLS) skills, including cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR), in saving lives during medical emergencies. Unfortunately, many individuals lack the knowledge and confidence needed to provide effective BLS in such situations. This is particularly true in countries like Mexico, where a lack of awareness and education on first aid and CPR has contributed to unnecessary deaths.

To address this issue, companies like CECAUV have been working to implement cutting-edge technology like their A.I.R.E. and A.M.A.R. glove and companion app. These innovative tools provide comprehensive self-learning modules on BLS techniques, specifically focusing on CPR. What sets them apart from other devices is that they are specifically designed for use by the general public, rather than just healthcare professionals.

Currently, there are few devices available on the market that are suitable for non-experts to use in emergency situations. The Lukas device, for example, is primarily used by medical professionals in hospitals and has a high price tag. This lack of accessible and affordable options has only further compounded the problem of inadequate BLS education and training among the general public.

CECAUV’s A.I.R.E. and A.M.A.R. products offer a promising solution to this problem. By utilizing user-friendly technology that can be accessed by anyone, anywhere, at any time, they are helping to bridge the gap in BLS education and training. With the use of these tools, individuals can gain the knowledge and skills needed to act quickly and confidently in medical emergencies, potentially saving countless lives. In conclusion, the development of innovative BLS technology like that offered by CECAUV represents an important step forward in promoting public health and safety, and one that is long overdue.


A study conducted in Mexico in 2018 by Gonzalez-Ortiz et al. found that only 10.5% of the surveyed population had received formal training in first aid, and only 8.7% knew how to perform CPR. In another study conducted in the United Kingdom by McKeown et al. in 2019, it was found that only 40% of the respondents knew how to perform CPR, and more than half believed that they would likely cause harm to the victim if they attempted CPR.

In a study conducted in Spain in 2019, the majority of the population (77.7%) considered cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) to be a useful skill that should be taught in school. However, only 32.9% of the respondents had received any type of CPR training, and only 12.6% of them had performed CPR in the past. These results suggest a lack of education and training in CPR in Spain, which may be a barrier for people to intervene in emergency situations and save lives (Martínez-Castro et al., 2019).

In a study conducted in Canada in 2019, it was found that 71.8% of the respondents had received some form of CPR training. However, 32.7% of them did not feel confident performing CPR, and 52.8% did not feel comfortable performing the maneuver on a stranger. Additionally, 22.4% of the respondents believed that performing CPR could be dangerous for themselves. These results show that, although CPR education is more common in Canada than in other countries, there is still a lack of confidence and knowledge among the general population (Vaillancourt et al., 2019).

A study conducted in Japan in 2020 found that 70.5% of the respondents had received some type of CPR training. However, 50.1% of the respondents did not feel confident performing CPR, and 66.6% had not performed CPR in the past. Additionally, 53.2% of the respondents believed that performing CPR could be dangerous for themselves. These results suggest that, although CPR education is common in Japan, there is still a lack of confidence and skills among the general population (Takemoto et al., 2020).

Importance of CPR

Cardiac arrests are one of the leading causes of death worldwide. While it is true that most cases occur in older people, it also affects young and apparently healthy individuals. According to statistics, approximately 356,000 people die each year in the United States due to cardiovascular disease, which is equivalent to one death every 36 seconds (American Heart Association, 2021).

The fact that no one is exempt from suffering a cardiac arrest is something that must be taken seriously. In the United States, it is estimated that 45% of deaths from cardiac arrest occur in people under 65, suggesting that this health problem affects not only the elderly but also young adults (Mozaffarian et al., 2016). Additionally, another study found that in Mexico, the average age of patients who suffer a cardiac arrest is 53 years, indicating that young people are also at risk of developing this condition (López-de-Sá et al., 2020).

Most cases of cardiac arrest occur outside the hospital, and only 10% of victims survive. The most common cause of cardiac arrest in young adults is coronary artery disease, while sudden cardiac death (SCD) is the most frequent cause in people under 35 years of age (American Heart Association, 2021). SCD refers to an unexpected death from cardiac causes that occurs within the first hour of symptom onset (Gussak & Antzelevitch, 2018).

It is important to emphasize the importance of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) in case of cardiac arrest, as it can make the difference between life and death. According to the American Heart Association (2021), CPR can double or even triple a victim’s chances of survival. Additionally, CPR is not only a life-saving technique, but it is also easy to learn and can be performed by anyone, regardless of their medical background. Therefore, it is essential to raise awareness about the importance of CPR and promote its teaching in the general population.

Cardiac arrests are more common than you think, and they can happen to anyone at any time.

  • Nearly 383,000 out-of-hospital sudden cardiac arrests occur annually, and 88 percent of cardiac arrests occur at home.
  • Many victims appear healthy with no known heart disease or other risk factors.
  • Sudden cardiac arrest is not the same as a heart attack.
  • Sudden cardiac arrest occurs when electrical impulses in the heart become rapid or chaotic, which causes the heart to suddenly stop beating.
  • A heart attack occurs when the blood supply to part of the heart muscle is blocked. A heart attack may cause cardiac arrest.

Who can you save with CPR?

The life you save with CPR is mostly likely to be a loved one.

  • Four out of five cardiac arrests happen at home.
  • Statistically speaking, if called on to administer CPR in an emergency, the life you save is likely to be someone at home: a child, a spouse, a parent or a friend.
  • African-Americans are almost twice as likely to experience cardiac arrest at home, work or in another public location than Caucasians, and their survival rates are twice as poor as for Caucasians.


American Heart Association:

Changing the Perception:

It is crucial to change people’s perception that only medical personnel should know the proper techniques for performing CPR. In fact, the AHA encourages everyone to learn CPR and offers courses that are accessible and easy to follow. Learning CPR can be a simple process that involves practice and online training modules. It can also help build confidence in one’s ability to respond appropriately in a medical emergency. This is something that CECAUV has been working on, promoting continuous first aid training in the population, as well as international institutions. By implementing technology that facilitates such learning so that knowledge can be acquired in a more didactic and simple way for everyone.

Why you should learn CPR

Examples and testimonials

Amy Cavaliere, 40, suffered sudden cardiac arrest in the ambulance after suffering a heart attack at home. The EMT performed CPR for 45 minutes to save his life. Today, she is teaching others how to save a life by learning CPR.

There have been many instances where bystanders have played a critical role in saving a victim’s life by performing CPR. For example, in 2017, a student in Mexico City saved his teacher’s life by performing CPR after she collapsed in class due to a heart attack. In another case, a man in the United States saved his neighbor’s life by performing CPR when he witnessed the neighbor collapse in his driveway.

Another very recent example was what happened in Seúl Korea where the accumulation of hundreds of people during Halloween celebrations in a narrow alley in Itaewon caused an avalanche on the night of October 29 that left 158 dead, mostly women between the ages of 20 and 30 who suffered cardiac arrest. In some videos, it can be seen how some people try to perform CPR on the injured, but they do it improperly and it is demonstrated that even in countries with a lot of technology, medical attention success is achieved when the population is unaware of the proper techniques.



In conclusion, the lack of knowledge about first aid and CPR can be a significant problem in many parts of the world, including Mexico. It is crucial to increase awareness about the importance of learning these techniques and change people’s perception that only medical personnel should know them. By offering accessible and easy-to-follow training programs, we can help build confidence in the general population and increase the chances of survival in medical emergencies. This is why projects like CECAUV, the Training Center of the Veracruzana University, with its products A.I.R.E. and A.M.A.R. provide an adequate solution to the problem by addressing the promotion of health, prevention, and immediate attention to the problem.

Annexes: Informative infographic prepared by SureFire CPR


American Heart Association. (2021). Hands-only CPR fact sheet.

Gutiérrez-Rodríguez J, Valenzuela-Sánchez F, Hernández-Gómez C, et al. Conocimientos, actitudes y prácticas sobre la reanimación cardiopulmonar en estudiantes universitarios de salud. Rev Med Inst Mex Seguro Soc. 2021;59(4):209-216.

Instituto Nacional de Estadística y Geografía (INEGI). Estadísticas de mortalidad. Consultado el 28 de abril de 2023.

Gonzalez-Ortiz, L. G., et al. (2018). First aid knowledge in Mexican population. Revista Médica del Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social, 56(2), 158-164.

McKeown, R. E., et al. (2019). Public knowledge and attitudes towards bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation in the United Kingdom. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, 73(4), 308

American Heart Association. (2020). Highlights of the 2020 American Heart Association Guidelines for CPR and ECC. Circulation, 142(16_suppl_2), S337-S357.

American Heart Association. (2015). Heartsaver® First Aid CPR AED Student Workbook.

Martínez-Castro, R., Plata-Menchaca, E. P., Gómez-González, C., Fernández-Crespo, J. C., González-Camacho, M. Á., Vázquez-López, E. M., … & García-Alcántara, Á. (2019). Reanimación cardiopulmonar en la población española: conocimientos y capacitación. Emergencias, 31(2), 102-107.

Vaillancourt, C., Kasaboski, A., Charette, M., & Shemie, S. D. (2019). Canadians’ attitudes about cardiopulmonary resuscitation and public access defibrillation: A national survey. Canadian Journal of Emergency Medicine, 21(5), 587-594.

Takemoto, K., Takeda, Y., Irino, Y., Oyama, T., Tamura, A., & Ishimatsu, S. (2020). Japanese citizens’ awareness and willingness to perform bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Acute Medicine & Surgery, 7(1), e484.